ALLAH -THE MOON GOD
The Archeology of The Middle East
The religion of Islam has as its focus of worship a deity by the name of "Allah." The Muslims claim that Allah in pre-Islamic
times was the biblical God of the Patriarchs, prophets, and apostles. The issue is thus one of continuity. Was "Allah" the
biblical God or a pagan god in Arabia during pre-Islamic times? The Muslim's claim of continuity is essential to their attempt
to convert Jews and Christians for if "Allah" is part of the flow of divine revelation in Scripture, then it is the next step
in biblical religion. Thus we should all become Muslims. But, on the other hand, if Allah was a pre-Islamic pagan deity, then
its core claim is refuted. Religious claims often fall before the results of hard sciences such as archeology. We can endlessly
speculate about the past or go and dig it up and see what the evidence reveals. This is the only way to find out the truth
concerning the origins of Allah. As we shall see, the hard evidence demonstrates that the god Allah was a pagan deity. In
fact, he was the Moon-god who was married to the sun goddess and the stars were his daughters.
Archeologists have uncovered temples to the Moon-god throughout the Middle East. From the mountains of Turkey to the banks
of the Nile, the most wide-spread religion of the ancient world was the worship of the Moon-god. In the first literate civilization,
the Sumerians have left us thousands of clay tablets in which they described their religious beliefs. As demonstrated by Sjoberg
and Hall, the ancient Sumerians worshipped a Moon-god who was called many different names. The most popular names were Nanna,
Suen and Asimbabbar. His symbol was the crescent moon. Given the amount of artifacts concerning the worship of this Moon-god,
it is clear that this was the dominant religion in Sumeria. The cult of the Moon-god was the most popular religion throughout
ancient Mesopotamia. The Assyrians, Babylonians, and the Akkadians took the word Suen and transformed it into the word Sin
as their favorite name for the Moon-god. As Prof. Potts pointed out, "Sin is a name essentially Sumerian in origin which had
been borrowed by the Semites."
In ancient Syria and Canna, the Moon-god Sin was usually represented by the moon in its crescent phase. At times the full
moon was placed inside the crescent moon to emphasize all the phases of the moon. The sun-goddess was the wife of Sin and
the stars were their daughters. For example, Istar was a daughter of Sin. Sacrifices to the Moon-god are described in the
Pas Shamra texts. In the Ugaritic texts, the Moon-god was sometimes called Kusuh. In Persia, as well as in Egypt, the Moon-god
is depicted on wall murals and on the heads of statues. He was the Judge of men and gods. The Old Testament constantly rebuked
the worship of the Moon-god (see: Deut. 4:19;17:3; II Kngs. 21:3,5; 23:5; Jer. 8:2; 19:13; Zeph. 1:5, etc.) When Israel fell
into idolatry, it was usually the cult of the Moon-god. As a matter of fact, everywhere in the ancient world, the symbol of
the crescent moon can be found on seal impressions, steles, pottery, amulets, clay tablets, cylinders, weights, earrings,
necklaces, wall murals, etc. In Tell-el-Obeid, a copper calf was found with a crescent moon on its forehead. An idol with
the body of a bull and the head of man has a crescent moon inlaid on its forehead with shells. In Ur, the Stela of Ur-Nammu
has the crescent symbol placed at the top of the register of gods because the Moon-god was the head of the gods. Even bread
was baked in the form of a crescent as an act of devotion to the Moon-god. The Ur of the Chaldees was so devoted to the Moon-god
that it was sometimes called Nannar in tablets from that time period.
A temple of the Moon-god has been excavated in Ur by Sir Leonard Woolley. He dug up many examples of moon worship in Ur
and these are displayed in the British Museum to this day. Harran was likewise noted for its devotion to the Moon-god. In
the 1950's a major temple to the Moon-god was excavated at Hazer in Palestine. Two idols of the moon god were found. Each
was a stature of a man sitting upon a throne with a crescent moon carved on his chest . The accompanying inscriptions make
it clear that these were idols of the Moon-god. Several smaller statues were also found which were identified by their inscriptions
as the "daughters" of the Moon-god. What about Arabia? As pointed out by Prof. Coon, "Muslims are notoriously loath to preserve
traditions of earlier paganism and like to garble what pre-Islamic history they permit to survive in anachronistic terms."
During the nineteenth century, Amaud, Halevy and Glaser went to Southern Arabia and dug up thousands of Sabean, Minaean,
and Qatabanian inscriptions which were subsequently translated. In the 1940's, the archeologists G. Caton Thompson and Carleton
S. Coon made some amazing discoveries in Arabia. During the 1950's, Wendell Phillips, W.F. Albright, Richard Bower and others
excavated sites at Qataban, Timna, and Marib (the ancient capital of Sheba). Thousands of inscriptions from walls and rocks
in Northern Arabia have also been collected. Reliefs and votive bowls used in worship of the "daughters of Allah" have also
been discovered. The three daughters, al-Lat, al-Uzza and Manat are sometimes depicted together with Allah the Moon-god represented
by a crescent moon above them. The archeological evidence demonstrates that the dominant religion of Arabia was the cult of
In Old Testament times, Nabonidus (555-539 BC), the last king of Babylon, built Tayma, Arabia as a center of Moon-god worship.
Segall stated, "South Arabia's stellar religion has always been dominated by the Moon-god in various variations." Many scholars
have also noticed that the Moon-god's name "Sin" is a part of such Arabic words as "Sinai," the "wilderness of Sin," etc.
When the popularity of the Moon-god waned elsewhere, the Arabs remained true to their conviction that the Moon-god was the
greatest of all gods. While they worshipped 360 gods at the Kabah in Mecca, the Moon-god was the chief deity. Mecca was in
fact built as a shrine for the Moon-god. This is what made it the most sacred site of Arabian paganism. In 1944, G. Caton
Thompson revealed in her book, The Tombs and Moon Temple of Hureidha, that she had uncovered a temple of the Moon-god in southern
Arabia. The symbols of the crescent moon and no less than twenty-one inscriptions with the name Sin were found in this temple.
An idol which may be the Moon-god himself was also discovered. This was later confirmed by other well-known archeologists.
The evidence reveals that the temple of the Moon-god was active even in the Christian era. Evidence gathered from both
North and South Arabia demonstrate that Moon-god worship was clearly active even in Muhammad's day and was still the dominant
cult. According to numerous inscriptions, while the name of the Moon-god was Sin, his title was al-ilah, i.e. "the deity,"
meaning that he was the chief or high god among the gods. As Coon pointed out, "The god Il or Ilah was originally a phase
of the Moon God." The Moon-god was called al-ilah, i.e. the god, which was shortened to Allah in pre-Islamic times. The pagan
Arabs even used Allah in the names they gave to their children. For example, both Muhammad's father and uncle had Allah as
part of their names. The fact that they were given such names by their pagan parents proves that Allah was the title for the
Moon-god even in Muhammad's day. Prof. Coon goes on to say, "Similarly, under Mohammed's tutelage, the relatively anonymous
Ilah, became Al-Ilah, The God, or Allah, the Supreme Being."
This fact answers the questions, "Why is Allah never defined in the Qur'an? Why did Muhammad assume that the pagan Arabs
already knew who Allah was?" Muhammad was raised in the religion of the Moon-god Allah. But he went one step further than
his fellow pagan Arabs. While they believed that Allah, i.e. the Moon-god, was the greatest of all gods and the supreme deity
in a pantheon of deities, Muhammad decided that Allah was not only the greatest god but the only god. In effect he said, "Look,
you already believe that the Moon-god Allah is the greatest of all gods. All I want you to do is to accept that the idea that
he is the only god. I am not taking away the Allah you already worship. I am only taking away his wife and his daughters and
all the other gods." This is seen from the fact that the first point of the Muslim creed is not, "Allah is great" but "Allah
is the greatest," i.e., he is the greatest among the gods. Why would Muhammad say that Allah is the "greatest" except in a
polytheistic context? The Arabic word is used to contrast the greater from the lesser. That this is true is seen from the
fact that the pagan Arabs never accused Muhammad of preaching a different Allah than the one they already worshipped. This
"Allah" was the Moon-god according to the archeological evidence. Muhammad thus attempted to have it both ways. To the pagans,
he said that he still believed in the Moon-god Allah. To the Jews and the Christians, he said that Allah was their God too.
But both the Jews and the Christians knew better and that is why they rejected his god Allah as a false god.
Al-Kindi, one of the early Christian apologists against Islam, pointed out that Islam and its god Allah did not come from
the Bible but from the paganism of the Sabeans. They did not worship the God of the Bible but the Moon-god and his daughters
al-Uzza, al-Lat and Manat. Dr. Newman concludes his study of the early Christian-Muslim debates by stating, "Islam proved
itself to be...a separate and antagonistic religion which had sprung up from idolatry." Islamic scholar Caesar Farah concluded
"There is no reason, therefore, to accept the idea that Allah passed to the Muslims from the Christians and Jews." The Arabs
worshipped the Moon-god as a supreme deity. But this was not biblical monotheism. While the Moon-god was greater than all
other gods and goddesses, this was still a polytheistic pantheon of deities. Now that we have the actual idols of the Moon-god,
it is no longer possible to avoid the fact that Allah was a pagan god in pre-Islamic times. Is it any wonder then that the
symbol of Islam is the crescent moon? That a crescent moon sits on top of their mosques and minarets? That a crescent moon
is found on the flags of Islamic nations? That the Muslims fast during the month which begins and ends with the appearance
of the crescent moon in the sky?
The pagan Arabs worshipped the Moon-god Allah by praying toward Mecca several times a day; making
a pilgrimage to Mecca; running around the temple of the Moon-god called the Kabah; kissing the black stone; killing an animal
in sacrifice to the Moon-god; throwing stones at the devil; fasting for the month which begins and ends with the crescent
moon; giving alms to the poor, etc. The Muslim's claim that Allah is the God of the Bible and that Islam arose from the religion
of the prophets and apostles is refuted by solid, overwhelming archeological evidence. Islam is nothing more than a revival
of the ancient Moon-god cult. It has taken the symbols, the rites, the ceremonies, and even the name of its god from the ancient
pagan religion of the Moon-god. As such, it is sheer idolatry and must be rejected by all those who follow the Gospel.
|In preIslamic times in Arabia and also in Mecca the goddess
Al'Lat (Q're), Al'Uzza and Menat or Manat were well known. In the
'Al Haram' on the Ka'bah in Mecca - which was build also prior to Muhammad - the corners are aligned to
very special Azimuths, an special object is directed to East-South East.|
The goddess Al'Uzza was connected with the planet Venus
as the morning star. The astrologic symbol of the conjunction of Venus and Moon is full loaded with its attributes
of beauty, sensitivity and warmth. Above the eastern horizon this conjunction is placed in the 12th astrologic house and symbols with it the sensitivity,
holiness and seclusion of love to a 'place of the woman' (Arab. 'Haram'). 'El Haram' is 'the holy place of the woman'.
In the Hebrew language 'Beth-ha-Ram' means a "place or house east of Jordan".
A worship of this
holy place is processed ever in the 12th (Moon-)month of the Islam calendar at a time when the
moon builds a trigonal aspect to the sun, this is ever exact 10 days after the Islam New-Moon event.
From this preIslamic
time exist also reports about the goddess in Arabia. Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, Cyprus, wrote in
the 4th century C.E., that the Nebataens worship a virgin 'Chaabou'. He also has heard the name of kabu,
("rectangular stone"), as a symbol of the goddess "Al'Lat". An Arabian scribe had said to him, that a stone
with four sides was worship as "Al'Lat", which is named in a Nebataen inscription as "Mother of gods". Epiphanius
said, that the male deity 'Dusares' (dhu Saar) (Greeks call him: Dionisos) was an offspring of the virgin 'Chaabou'. The title of the goddess 'Al'lat' is "Mother of
the gods". The "Great Mother of the gods" of the Babylonian was 'be Ælet ilaµni' ("Queen of gods"), and
this her title was also "Mother Goddess". Epiphanius has identified 'Chaabou' also with the goddess 'Core' or 'Kore', who is called 'Ashtar' by the northern Semites
and 'Ishtar' by the Babylonians. .
The (male) Moongod 'Hub-Al' was also called Wadd = "The Lover".
Al-ilat or Al-Lat ("The
goddess") was visualized as the daughter of "Al-lah" ("The god") as the lord of the Ka'bah in Mecca.
(Al'Uzza) and the ascending, increasing, crescent Moon in the East are still maintained as a symbol
On the roof of the Maqam Ibrahim near the Ka'bah in 'Al Haram' the Symbol of the ascending and Crescent
Moon is still present.
»Al« means in Arabic language the same as »El« in Hebrew language. p.e. ('El_ohim')
View on the West side of the Ka'bah in earlier time.
View on the Ka'bah in earlier time. Right direction from the Ka'bah, which is traded as 'Safa', which means 'pure',
are placed two buildings with peak towers. Its color and optic has a connection to
the holy Mt. Kailash in Tibet.
This Mt. Kailash has itself a special symbolic
Mt. Kailash - symbol Kailash - Mt. Kailash
Kailash is the mountain of god Shiva, who is sitting there in eternal meditation with his wife Parvati.
1. The True Origin of 'Allah':
The Archaeological Record Speaks
A. The Name of God in the Bible
The God of the Old Testament is known as YHWH ()or, when pointed with the correct vowels, Yahweh. This translates as "The Self-Existent One", being derived from the
Hebrew háwáh, meaning "to exist". As Allah is the name of God on the Muslim Holy Scriptures, the Koran (or Quran),
so Yahweh is the Name of God in the Hebrew Scriptures, the Bible. What is particularly interesting and significant is the
fact that Yahweh never appears as the name of of any deity outside the Bible. There is no record anywhere
of any other tribe or religion which worhipped Yahweh. The Hebrew Name of God is unique to the Bible and its chosen people.
From this alone we may deduce that the Name "Yahweh" was not borrowed from some other culture or religion. It emerged unquely
within the Bible revelation.
It is claimed by Muslims that Allah is the God of the Bible and that he is mentioned in the sacred
texts. This is absolutely not true. The name "Allah" does not appear once in either the Old or New Testaments. The only time
God is referred to by name in the Old Testament is either as YAHWEH (meaning "He (who) is") or as a contraction,
YAH. [Please note that the name "Jehovah" is not a biblical name of God but was especially 'created' by Jews
afraid to pronounce the Sacred Name by combining the consonants YHWH with the vowels from adonai, meaning "Lord"].
The word alah does exist in Hebrew but it is not a proper name and it never refers
to God. It has three principal meanings: (a) to curse, swear, or adjure; (b) to lament (weep); and (c) to arise, ascend, climb,
go away, leap, etc.. It is an indisputable fact that ALLAH does not appear even once as the Name of God, or even of
a man, in the Hebrew Scriptures. There is no word 'alah' or 'allah' in the Greek New Testament at all. It was, quite simply,
unknown in the Bible world. To therefore claim that 'Allah' was the name of God in the Bible is without one single shred of
evidence. God has always been known as Yahweh, or (much less frequently) by the contraction Yah.
Muslim scholars have gone to great lengths to try and prove that the Arabic "Allah" is, in fact, the
same as the Hebrew "Eloah", which is not a proper name and simply translates as "God". The words "El" and "Elohim" also translate
the same way, appear far more numerously than Eloah, and may be used to designate either the true God, pagan deities, idols,
or even human judges. It is for this reason that I have heard Muslim apologists get annoyed when other Muslins talk about
"God" instead of "Allah" because the word "God" can be applied to any religion's god. They recognise that Allah is a proper
name which distinguishes the God of the Muslims from the God of the Jews and Christians, or the gods of the Hindus and others.
"Eloah" is, in any case, a derivative of "El" and its plural "Elohim" which doesn't remotely sound like "Allah". You will
not find many (if any) Muslims insisting that they worship the Hebrew Eloah - the only time they ever try to make a connection
is when trying to recruit Jews and Christians to Islam. If I were confess that "Eloah" were my God and that Mohammed was his
prophet I doubt any Muslim would believe I had converted to Islam!
There is another El-derived word for "God" in the Old Testament which sounds similar to Allah and that
is Elah. It is only used by the prophets Ezra, Daniel and once by Jeremiah. It is, again, not a proper name, and actually
also means an "oak tree" and was thus also used by pagans as a title for their tree deities, i.e. idols. I doubt somehow that
Muslims would wish their Allah to be associated with an idol.
Even if the Muslim scholars were right about "Eloah" (which the evidence strongly repudiates) we would
then be faced with the problem that God has two proper names - Yahweh and Eloah/Allah - which contradicts God's own testimony
in the Old Testament that He is only known as Yahweh.
The Name Yahweh is enshrined in the Third Commandment:
The word "vain" is the Hebrew shoaw, meaning "to rush over, to bring devastation, uselessness,
or ruin". In other words, this is THE Sacred Name above all names. This Name is not to be blasphemed (Lev.24:16)
or desicrated. It is to be treated with reverential awe because it is the essence of the True God Himself.
The Catholics and most Protestants have blasphemed this Name by changing it to "Jehovah" which translated
"God is perverse" by mutilating it (as described above). There is even a whole church called the "Jehovah's Witnesses" which
uses this disgusting name. The Bible teaches from cover to cover that the true Name of God, Yahweh, is essential to
salvation. It is mentioned right at the beginning of the Bible and is used througout. Yahweh is the creator "who made
the earth and the heavens" (Gen.2:4).
One thing most Muslims and Christians are ignorant of is that the Name of the True God appears
within the Name of Jesus. Most Christians are rather embarrassed to learn that "Jesus" isn't the real Name of Christ
at all. If you had asked someone in New Testament times who "Jesus" was, nobody would have known. If you had asked Mary (Miryam)
is she had a son called "Jesus" she would have stared at you blankly. The son of Mary was not called "Jesus" but Yah'shua
Jesus is a Greek word. The letter "J" doesn't even exist in Hebrew. Yet the angel Gabriel told Mary/Miriyam
that the Messiah's Name, which was given by Almighty God Himself, was of special significance. It has a precise meaning
of prophetic importance. Gabriel said that He would receive this Name because "He shall save His people from their sins".
Every Hebrew scholar will tell you that the Name given through Gabriel was Y'SHUA or YAH'SHUA. Literally translated
this means, "YAH saves" - and you will remember that Yah is a contraction of Yahweh.
You see, God's true Name was even preserved in the Name of the Messiah because it is YAH / Yahweh
- who saves. The Name of "Jesus" was "YAHWEH SAVES".
The Scriptures are therefore consistent not only in preserving the true Name of God, Yahweh,
throughout, but in placing the Sacred Name in the Messiah as well. This is no accident of of immense prophetic significance.
There are now millions of believers who now no longer use the perverse name "Jehovah" and who use the correct name of Jesus,
Yah'shua, in order to be true to the Scriptures. I am one of them. Christians have been guilty of obscuring the truth by adopting
perverted or Hellenised Names of Deity.
What has this to do with our discussion of Allah? The reason I have spent so much time underscoring
the Biblical Name of God is to show clearly and finally that it has been known as Yahweh since the beginning of time.
And whilst there are certain superficial similarities in sound to the Arabic "Allah" the meaning and historical origin
is quite, quite different.
B. Origin of the Name Allah
The word "Allah" comes from the compound Arabic word, al-ilah. Al is the definite article
"the" and ilah is an Arabic word for "god", i.e. the god. We see immediately that (a) this is not a proper
name but a generic name rather like the Hebrew El (which as we have seen was used of any deity; and (b)
that Allah is not a foreign word (as it would have been if it had been borrowed from the Hebrew Bible) but a purely Arabic
one. It would also be wrong to compare "Allah" with the Hebrew or Greek for God (El and Theos, respectively),
because "Allah" is purely an Arabic term used exclusively in reference to an Arabic deity.
The Encyclopedia of Religion says: "'Allah' is a pre-Islamic name ... corresponding to the Baylonian
Bel" (ed. James Hastings, Edinburgh, T. & T. Clark, 1908, I:326).
I know that Muslims will find this hard to believe so I am now going to make many citations and present
the archaeological evidence to prove conclusively that is true. Though this data will be painful for many of our readers,
it is necessary to face the truth. Facts and facts, and unless you are willing to desert all logic, reason and common sense,
and the evidence of your eyes, they must be faced.
- "Allah is found ... in Arabic inscriptions prior to Islam" (Encyclopedia Britannica, I:643)
- "The Arabs, before the time of Mohammed, accepted and worshipped, after a fashion, a supreme god called
allah" (Encyclopedia of Islam, eds. Houtsma, Arnold, Basset, Hartman; Leiden: E.J.Brill, 1913, I:302)
- "Allah was known to the pre-Islamic Arabs; he was one of the Meccan deities" (Encyclopedia of Islam,
ed. Gibb, I:406)
- "Ilah ... appears in pre-Islamic poetry ... By frequency of usage, al-ilah was contracted
to allah, frequently attested to in pre-Islamic poetry" (Encyclopedia of Islam, eds. Lewis, Menage, Pellat,
Schacht; Leiden: E.J.Brill, 1971, III:1093)
- "The name Allah goes back before Muhammed" (Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend, "The
Facts on File", ed. Anthony Mercatante, New York, 1983, I:41)
- The origin of this (Allah) goes back to pre-Muslim times. Allah is not a common name meaning "God"
(or a "god"), and the Muslim must use another word or form if he wishes to indicate any other than his own peculiar deity"
(Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, ed. James Hastings, Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1908, I:326)
Scholar Henry Preserved Smith of Harvard University stated:
- "Allah was already known by name to the Arabs" (The Bible and Islam: or, the Influence of the Old
and New Testament on the Religion of Mohammed, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1897, p.102)
Dr. Kenneth Cragg, former editor of the prestigious scholarly journal Muslim World and an outstanding
modern Western Islamic scholar, whose works were generally published by Oxford University, comments:
- The name Allah is also evident in archaeological and literary remains of pre-Islamic Arabia" (The
Call of the Minaret, New York: OUP, 1956, p.31)
Dr. W. Montgomery Watt, who was Professor of Arabic and Islamic Studies at Edinburgh University and
Visiting Professor of Islamic Studies at College de France, georgetown University, and the University of Toronto, has done
extensive work on the pre-Islamic concept of Allah. He concludes:
"In recent years I have become increasingly voncinced that for an adequate understanding of the career
of Muhammad and the origins of Islam great importance must be attached to the existence in Mecca of belief in Allah as a "high
god". In a sense this is a form of paganism, but it is so different from paganism as commonly understood that it dererves
separate treatment" (Mohammad's Mecca, p.vii. See also his article, "Belief in a High God in pre-Islamic Mecca", Journal
of Scientific Semitic Studies, vol.16, 1971, pp.35-40)
Caesar Farah in his book on Islam concludes his discussion of the pre-Islamic meaning of Allah by saying:
"There is no reason, therefore, to accept the idea that Allah passed to the Muslims from the Christians
and Jews" (Islam: Beliefs and Observations, New York: Barrons, 1987, p.28)
According to Middle East scholar E.M.Wherry, whose translation of the Koran is still used today, in
pre-Islamic times Allah-worship, as well as the worship of Baal, were both astral religions in that they involved the worship
of the sun, the moon, and the stars (A Comprehensive Commentary on the Quran, Osnabrück: Otto Zeller Verlag, 1973,
"In ancient Arabia, the sun-god was viewed as a female goddess and the moon as the male god. As has
been pointed out by many scholars as Alfred Guilluame, the moon god was called by various names, one of which was Allah (op.cit.,
"The name Allah was used as the personal name of the moon god, in addition to the other
titles that could be given to him.
"Allah, the moon god, was married to the sun goddess. Together they produced three goddesses who were
called 'the daughters of Allah'. These three goddesses were called Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat.
"The daughters of Allah, along with Allah and the sun goddess were viewed as "high" gods. That is,
they were viewed as being at the top of the pantheon of Arabian deities" (Robert Morey, The Islamic Invasion, Eugene,
Oregon, Harvest House Publishers, 1977, pp.50-51).
The Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend records:
"Along with Allah, however, they worshipped a host of lesser gods and "daughters of Allah" (op.cit.,
It is a well known fact archaeologically speaking that the cresent moon was the symbol of worship of
the moon god both in Arabia and throughout the Middle East in pre-Islamic times. Archaeologists have excavated numerous statues
and hieroglyphic inscriptions in which a crescent moon was seated on the top of the head of the deity to symbolise the worship
of the moon-god. Interestingly, whilst the moon was generally worshipped as a female deity in the Ancient Near East, the Arabs
viewed it as a male deity.
In Mesopotamia the Sumerian god Nanna, named Sîn by the Akkadians, was worshipped in particular in
Ur, where he was the chief god of the city, and also in the city of Harran in Syria, which had close religious links with
Ur. The Ugaritic texts have shown that there a moon deity was worshipped under the name yrh. On the monuments the god
is represented by the symbol of the crescent moon. At Hazor in Palestine a small Canaanite shrine of the late Bronze Age was
discovered which contained a basalt stele depicting two hands lifted as if in prayer to a crescent moon, indicating that the
shrine was dedicated to the moon god.
The worship of stellar deities, instead of Yahweh, was always a temptation faced by the Israelites
(Dt.4:19; Jer.7:18; Am.5:26; Ac.7:43). But Yahweh is at the zennith of the heavens (Job 22:12).
"The Quraysh tribe into which Mohammad was born was particularly devoted to Allah, the moon god, and
especially to Allah's three daughters who were viewed as intercessors between the people and Allah.
"The worship of the three goddesses, Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat, played a significant
rôle in the worship at the Kabah in Mecca. The first two daughters of Allah had names which were feminine forms of Allah.
"The literal Arabic name of Muhammad's father was Abd-Allah. His uncle's name was Obied-Allah.
These names reveal the personal devotion that Muhammad's pagan family had to the worship of Allah, the moon god" (op.cit.,
History proves conclusively that before Islam came into existence, the Sabbeans in Arabia worshipped
the moon-god Allah who was married to the sun-goddess. We have also seen that it was a matter of common practice to
use the name of the moon-god in personal names in Muhammad's tribe. That Allah was a pagan deity in pre-Islamic times
is incontestible. And so we must ask ourselves the question: why was Muhammad's God named after a pagan deity in his own tribe?
It is an undeniable fact that an Allah idol was set up at the Kabah along with all the other
idols of the time. The pagans prayed towards Mecca and the Kabah because that is where their gods were stationed. It made
sense to them to face in the direction of their god and pray since that is where he was. Since the idol of their moon god,
Allah, was at Mecca, they prayed towards Mecca.
As we have seen, and as is acknowledged amongst all scholars of Middle Eastern religious history, the
worship of the moon-god extended far beyond Allah-worship in Arabia. The entire fertile crescent was involved in moon-worship.
The data falls neatly in place and we are able therefore to understand, in part, the early success Islam had amongst Arab
groups that had traditionally worshipped Allak, the moon-god. We can also understand that the use of the crescent moon
as the symbol of Islam, and which appears on dozens of flags of Islamic nations in Asia and Africa, and surmounts minerets
and mosque roofs, is a throwback to the days when Allah was worshipped as the moon-god in Mecca.
Educated Muslims understand these facts only too well - better, in fact, than most Christians. Robert
Morey recalls a conversation he once had:
"During one trip to Washington DC I got involved in a conversation with a Muslim tax driver from Iran.
When I asked him, 'Where did Islam obtain its symbol of the crescent moon?' he responded that it was an ancient pagan symbol
used throughout the Middle East and that adopting this symbol had helped Muslims to convert people throughout the Middle East.
When I pointed out that the word Allah itself was used by the moon-god cult in pre-Islamic Arabia, he agreed that this was
the case. I then pointed out that the religion and the Quran of Muhammad could be explained in terms of pre-Islamic culture,
customs, and religious ideas. He agreed with this! He went on to explain that he was a university-educated Muslim who, at
this point in his life, was attempting to understand Islam from a scholarly viewpoint. As a result, he had lost his faith
in Islam. The significance of the pre-Islamic source of the name Allah cannot be overestimated" (op.cit., pp.52-53).
What is particularly interesting to me personally is seeing the parallels between the evolution of
Islam and the Roman Catholic Church, both of which absorbed pagan ideas in order to make converts. Muhammad was not alone
in his plagiarisation of other religions. Bogus "Christian" churches have done it too. Those naming the Name of Christ must
accept responsibility for similar things. And it is for this reason that this author has renounced all counterfeit forms of
Christianity and returned to the original teachings of the Bible and to the true God, Yahweh-Elohim.
If there is one thing that has been abundantly clear in my study of comparative religions it is this:
all the major religions have different concepts of deity. Yahweh, Allah, Vishnu and Buddha are absolutely not
the same. In other words, all religions do not worship the same God, only under different names. That is why the use
of the word "God" in describing deity is so inadequate and why we must return to the names of these deities to discover
what they actually mean in terms of personality and attributes. Ignoring the essential differences which divide world religions
is an insult to the uniqueness of world religions. Yahweh, the God of the Bible, is not Allah the god of the
Koran, is not Vishnu the god of the Vedas, is not the god of the Buddhists, etc.. As we shall see in a later
article, there are fundamental differences between Yahweh and Allah in terms of personal attributes, theology,
morals, ethics, soteriology, eschatology, theocracy, and in almost every other respect. They represent two different spiritual
worlds. And when we discover even more of the nature of Yahweh through the revelation of Yah'shua (Jesus) we
see that the gap between the Bible and the Koran is even wider.
I shall conclude this article with more evidence concerning the true origin of the deity which has
been incorporated into Islam as Allah.
C. Archaeology of the Moon-God
Muslims worship a deity called Allah and claim that the Allah in pre-Islamic times was
the biblical God, Yahweh, of the patriarchs, prophets, and apostles.
Ahmed Deedat, well-known Muslim apologist, argues that Allah is a biblical name for God on the
basis of "Allelujah" which he convolutes into "Allah-lujah" (What is His Name?, Durban, SA: IPCI, 1990, p.37). This
only reveals that he does not understand Hebrew, for haleluyah is the contracted form of Yahweh, YAH,
preceeded by the verb "to praise" (literally, Praise Yah(weh)!). His other "biblical" arguments are equally absurd.
he also claims that the word "Allah" was never corrupted by paganism. "Allah is a unique word for the only God ...
you cannot make a feminine of Allah", says Deedat. But what he does not tell his readers is that one of Allah's daughters
was named "Al-Lat", which is the feminine form of "Allah"!
The issue here is therefore seen to be one of CONTINUITY for the Muslim's claim of continuity (from
Judaism to Christianity to Islam) is essential in their attempt to convert Jews and Christians. If "Allah" is part
of the flow of divine revelation in Scripture, then it is the next step in biblical religion. Thus we should all become Muslims.
But, on the other hand, if Allah was a pre-Islamic pagan deity, then its core claim is refuted.
Religious claims often come to grief as a result of solid scientific, archaeological evidence. Sp,
instead of endlessly speculating about the past, we can look to science to see what the evidence reveals. As we shall see,
the hard evidence demonstrates that the god Allah was a pagan deity. In fact, he was the moon-god who was married to
the sun-goddess and the stars were his daughters.
Archaeologists have uncovered temples to the moon-god throughout the Middle East. From the mountains
of Turkey to the banks of the Nile, the most widespread religion of the ancient world was the worship of the moon-god. It
was even the religion of the patriarch Abraham before Yahweh revealed Himself and commanded him to leave his home in
Ur of the Chaldees and migrate to Canaan.
A scene from the time of Abraham. A merchant, his wife and daughter at the ziggurat of Ur, prayerfully
priests and musicians restore a gilded statue of the moon-god Sîn to his temple atop the "Hill of Heaven"
Archaeologists have uncovered temples to the moon-god throughout the Middle East (see the artistic
reconstruction above based on museum artifacts, wall paintings found in ruined cities, etc. in ancient Mesopotamia). From
the mountains of Turkey to the banks of the Nile, the most widespread religion of the ancient world was the worship of the
The Sumerians, in the first literate civilisation, left thoudands of clay tablets describing their
religious beliefs. As demonstrated by Sjöberg and Hall, the ancient Sumerians worshipped a moon-god who was called by many
different names. The most popular names were Nanna, Suen, and Asimbabbar (Mark Hall, A Study of the Sumerian Moon-god,
Sin, PhD., 1985, University of Pennsylvania). His symbol was the crescent moon. Given the amount of artifacts concerning
the worship of this moon-god, it is clear that this was the dominant religion in Sumeria. The cult of the moon-god was the
most popular religion throughout ancient Mesopotamia. The Assyrians, Babylonians, and Arkkadians took the word Suen
and transformed it into the word Sîn as their favourite name for this deity (Austin Potts, The Hymns and Prayers
to the Moon-god, Sin, PhD., 1971, Dropsie College, p.2). As Professor Potts pointed out, "Sîn is a name essentially Sumerian
in origin which had been borrowed by the Semites" (op.cit., p.4).
Anatolian mural from Karum - notice the boxed pre-Islamic Crescent-and-Star glyph
Another pre-Islamic crescent moon and star from the same location
Pre-Islamic and Islamic Crescent-and-Star Glyphs
Anatolian (left), Islamic (centre), Ancient Persian Moon-goddess (right)
In ancient Syria and Canna, the moon-god Sîn was usually represented by the moon in its crescent phase.
At times, the full moon was placed inside the crescent moon to emphasise all the phases of the moon. Tne sun-goddess was the
wife of Sîn and the stars were their daughters. For example, Ishtar was the daughter of Sîn (Ibid., p.7).
Sacrifices to the moon-god are described in the Ras Shamra texts (see Ras Shamra stele from North Syria to the right). In
the Ugaritic texts, the moon-god was sometimes called Kusuh. In Persia (above right), as well as in Egypt (left), the moon-god
is depicted on wall murals and on the heads of statutes. He was the judge of men and gods.
As a matter of fact, everywhere in the ancient world the symbol of the crescent moon can be found on
seal impressions, steles, pottery, amulets, clay tablets, cylinders, weights, earrings, necklasses, wall murals, and so on.
In Tell-el-Obeid, a copper calf was found with crescent moon on its forehead, the same idol the children of Israel worshipped
in the Desert of Sîn (Sînai) during the apostacy whilst Moses was on top of the mountain getting the Ten Commandments from
Yahweh. While God's prophet (Moses) was conversing with the true God, Yahweh, the Israelites were descending
into idolatry worshipping the moon-god, Sîn! An idol with the body of a bull and the head of a man has a crescent inlaid on
its forehead with shells. In Ur, the Stela of Ur-Nammu has the crescent symbol placed at the top of the register of gods because
the moon god was the head of the gods. Even bread was baked in the form of a crescent as an act of devotion to the moon-god
Ur of the Chaldees was so devoted to the moon-god that it was sometimes called Nannar in tablets from that time period. A
temple of the moon-god was excavated in Ur by Sir Leonard Woolley. He dug up many examples of moon-worship that are now displayed
in the British Museum. Harran was likewise noted for its devotion to the moon-god. An example of the Babylonian moon-god is
shown to the right. Note the presence of the crescent.
In the 1950's a major temple to the moon-god was excavated at Hazor in Palestine. Two idols of the
moon-god were found. Each was a statue of a man sitting upon a throne with a crescent moon carved into his chest (below left).
The accompanying inscriptions make it clear that these were idols of the moon-god (below right). The worship tablet found
at the same sight (left) shows arms outstretched towards the Moon-god here represented by the full moon within the crescent
moon. Several smaller statues were also found which were identified by their inscriptions as the daughters of the moon-god.
These are illustrated in the collection of photographs (below right).
What about Arabia? As pointed out by Professor Coon, "Muslims are notoriously loathe to preserve traditions
of earlier paganism and like to garble what pre-Islamic history they permit to survive in anachronistic terms" (Carleton S.
Coon, Southern Arabia, Washington DC, Smithsonian, 1944, p.398).
During the 19th century, Arnaud, Halevy, and Glaser went to southern Arabia and dug up thousands of
Sabean, Minaean, and Qarabanian inscriptions which were subsequently translated.
In the 1940's, archaeologists G. Caton Thompson and Carleton S. Coon made some amazing discoveries
in Arabia. During the 1950's, Wendell Phillips, W.F.Albright, Richard Bower, and others excavated sites Qataban, Timna, and
Marib (the ancient capital of Sheba).
Thousands of inscriptions from walls and rocks in northern Arabia have also been collected. Reliefs
and votive bowls used in worship of the "daughters of Allah" have also been discovered. The three daughters, Al-Lat,
Al-Uzza, and Manat are sometimes depicted together with Allah the moon-god represented by a crescent
moon above them (North Arabian archaeological finds concerning Al-Lat are discussed in: Isaac Rabinowitz, Aramaic
Inscriptions of the Fifth Century, JNES, XV, 1956, pp.1-9; Another Aramaic Record of the North Arabian goddess Han'Llat,
JNES, XVIII, 1959, pp.154-55; Edward Linski, The Goddess Atirat in Ancient Arabia, in Babylon and in Ugarit: Her Relation
to the Moon-god and the Sun-goddess, Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica, 3:101-9; H.J.Drivers, Iconography and Character
of the Arab Goddess Allat, found in Études Preliminaries Aux Religions Orientales Dans L'Empire Roman, ed. Maarten
J. Verseren, Leiden, Brill, 1978, pp.331-51).
The archaeological evidence demonstrates that the dominant religion in Arabia was the cult of the
moon-god. The Old Testament consistenly rebuked the worship of the moon-god (e.g. Dt.4:19; 17:3; 2 Ki.21:3,5; 23:5; Jer.8:2;
19:13; Zeph.1:5). When Israel fell into idolatry, it was usually to the cult of the moon-god. In Old Testament times, Nabonidus
(555-539 BC), the last King of Babylon, built Tayma, Arabia, as a centre od moon-god worship. Segall stated: "South Arabia's
stellar religion has always been dominated by the Moon-god in various variations" (Berta Segall, The Iconography of Cosmic
Kingship, the Art Bulletin, vol.xxxviii, 1956, p.77). Many scholars have also noticed that the moon-god's name, Sín,
is a part of such Arabic words as "Sinai", the "wilderness of Sîn", and so forth.
When the popularity of the moon-god waned elsewhere, the Arabs remained true to their conviction that
the moon-god was the greatest of all gods. While they worshipped 360 gods at the Kabah in Mecca, the moon-god was the chief
deity. Mecca was in fact built as a shrine for the moon-god. This is what made it the most sacred site of Arabian paganism.
In 1944, G. Caton Thompson revealed in her book, The Tombs and Moon Temple of Hureidah, that
she had uncovered a temple of the moon-god in southern Arabia (see map above). The symbols of the crescent moon and no less
than 21 inscriptions with the name Sîn were found in this temple (see above left). An idol which is probably the moon-god
himself was also discovered (see above right). This was later confirmed by other well-known archaeologists (See Richard Le
Baron Bower Jr. and Frank P. Albright, Archaeological Discoveries in South Arabia, Baltimore, John Hopkins University
Press, 1958, p.78ff; Ray Cleveland, An Ancient South Arabian Necropolis, Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press,
1965; Nelson Gleuck, Deities and Dolphins, New York, Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1965).
The temple reveals that the temple of the moon-god was active even in the Christian era. Evidence gathered
from both North and South Arabia demonstrate that moon-god worship was clearly active even in Muhammad's day and was still
the dominant cult.
According to numerous inscriptions, while the name of the moon-god was Sîn, his title was al-ilah,
"the deity", meaning that he was the chief of high god among the gods. As Coon pointed out, "The God Il or Ilah
was originally a phase of the Moon-God" (Coon, Southern Arabia, p.399).
The moon-god was called al-ilah, the god, which was shortened to Allah
in pre-Islamic times. The pagan Arabs even used Allah in the names they gave to their children. For example, both Muhammad's
father and uncle has Allah as part of their names. The fact that they were given such names by their parents proves that Allah
was the title for the moon-god even in Muhammad's day. Professor Coon says, "Similarly, under Muhammad's tutelage, the relatively
anonymous Ilah, became Al-Ilah, The God, of Allah, the Supreme Being" (Ibid.).
This fact answers the questions: "Why is Allah never defined in the Quran?" and "Why did
Muhammad assume that the pagan Arabs already knew who Allah was?"
Muhammad was raised in the religion of the moon-god Allah. But he went one step further than
his fellow pagan Arabs. While they believed that Allah the moon-god was the greatest of all gods and the supreme
deity in the pantheon of deities,Muhammad decided that Allah was not only the greatest god but the only God.
In effect he said, "Look, you already believe that the moon-god Allah is the greatest of all
gods. All I want you to do is accept the idea that he is the only god. I am not taking away the Allah you already
worship. I am only taking away his wife and his daughters and all the other gods."
This is seen from the fact that the first point of the Muslim creed is not "Allah is great"
but "Allah is the greatest" - he is the greatest among the gods. Why would Muhammad say that Allah
is the greatest except in a polytheistic (many gods) context? The Arabic word is used to contrast the greater from
That this is true is seen from the fact that the pagan Arabs never accused Muhammad of preaching
a different Allah than the one they already worshipped. Thus "Allah" was the moon-god according to the
Muhammad thus attempted to have it both ways. To the pagans, he said that he still believed in the
moon-god Allah. To the Jews and the Christians he said that Allah was their God, too. But both the Jews and
the Christians, who worshipped Yahweh, knew better and they rejected his god Allah as a false god.
Al-Kindi, one of the early Christian apologists against Islam, pointed out that Islam and its god Allah
did not come from the Bible but from the paganism of the Sabeans. They did not worship the God of the Bible but the moon-god
and his daughters al-Uzza, al-Lat, and Manat (Three Easly Christian-Muslim Debates, ed. by N.A.Newman,
Hatfield, PA, IBRI, 1994, pp.357, 413, 426).
Dr. Newman concludes his study of the early Christian-Muslim debates by stating, "Islam proved itself
to be ... a separate and antagonistic religion which had sprung up from idolatry" (Ibid., p.719). Islamic scholar Caesar Farah
concluded, "There is no reason, therefore, to accept the idea that Allah passed to the Muslims from the Christians
and the Jews" (Caesar Farah, Islam: Beliefs and Observances, New York, Barrons, 1987, p.28).
The Arabs worshipped the moon-god as a supreme deity. But that was not biblical monotheism.
While the moon-god was greater than all the other gods and goddesses, this was still a polytheistic pantheon of deities. Now
that we have the actual idols of the moon-god, it is no longer possible to avoid the fact that Allah was a pagan god
in pre-Islamic times.
Is it any wonder that the symbol of Islam is the crescent moon? That a crescent moon sits on top of
their mosques and minarets? That a crescent is found on the flags of Islamic nations? That the Muslims fast during the month
which begins and ends with the appearance of the crescent moon in the sky?
The pagan Arabs worshipped the moon god Allah by praying toward Mecca several times a day; making
a pilgrimage to Mecca; running around the temple of the moon-god called the Kabah; kissing the black stone; killing an animal
in sacrifice to the moon-god; throwing stones at the devil; fasting for the month that begins and ends with the crescent moon;
giving alms to the poor, and so on.
The fact that the Muslims worship only one god - are monotheism - does not prove that the god
they worship is the True God. A similar pagan "reformation" occurred in ancient Egypt when Pharaoh Akhenaton decided to become
a monotheist by making the sun-god Aton the one and only true god of Egypt, persecuting and outlawing worship of all the other
gods of his nation.
There are four interesting parallels with Islam here: (a) Akhenaton made the male sun-god the
one and only god of Egypt, while (b) Muhammad made the male moon-god the one and only god of the Arabs. Neither god
remotely resembled Yahweh, the God of the Bible, both being pagan deities borrowed from polytheistic religions.
And there is a third parallel: (c) Though technically monotheistic, in practice Akhenaton remained a god himself. Though never
calling himself a "god", Muhammad certainly accrued many of the attributes of godly power as we shall see in subsequent articles.
Finally, (d) Akhenaton used as a symbol for his god the Ankh Cross consisting of a solar disk atop a Tau cross, whilst
Muhammad retained for Islam the pagan crescent moon symbol of the moon-god Allah.
Is this all a fanciful, far-fetched conclusion? Is all the vast array of scholarly information available
on Allah simply a conspiracy by evil Westerners to discredit Islam? Or might what you have read be the truth? Are you
honest enough to continue researching the origins of Islam further? And most importantly, are you honest enough to admit that
you might be wrong and that the truth about God lies elsewhere?
My purpose in this article has not been to prove Christianity but simply to examine Islam's roots and
to see if the "official version" is believable. What we myst not do is try to cover up the deficiencies of our own religion
by attacking another one. The two issues muct be kept separate so as not to confuse the issue. This requires self-control
above all else. It means keeping passions checked whilst we calmly investigate the facts. Hot-headed people do not tend to
find the truth because they are too blinded by their own chaotic feelings.
May Yahweh, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and all the biblical prophets, and of Yah'shua
(Jesus) Himself, bless and you guide you in the way of truth. Amen.